- Why Hold Your Baby Skin-to-Skin?
- Safety Checkpoints for Holding your Baby
in Skin to Skin Contact AKA Kangaroo Care
- Info for Mom & Family
- Skin to Skin Benefits for Baby
- Skin to Skin Benefits for Mom
- Health Care Professionals
Skin to Skin is the Best Place for Babies to Transition to life
- Increased rate of successful breastfeeding
- Reduce maternal stress and postpartum depression
- Promotes parent-infant bonding
- Increased milk production
- Decreased pain and faster expulsion of placenta
- Increased confidence in infants care
- Improves brain functioning
- Decreased number of infections
- Latch on and feed better
- Are happier, calmer, less stressed
- Infants rarely cry
- Improves heart rate, respiratory and gastrointestinal function
- Help to regulate temperature and blood sugar
How to receive the benefits of Skin to Skin Contact
- Have the mother provide continuous KC until discharge. Mother and infant should remain in KC as much as possible throughout the postpartum stay for improved interactions, development, and breastfeeding (Kent et al., 2012;Vasquez & Berg, 2012).
- Continue KC as much as possible throughout the first three months of life (Chalmers, O’Brien, & Boscoe, 2009)
- Use KC as a FIRST intervention for breastfeeding problems (Vazquez & Berg, 2012).
- Remember, Kangaroo Care is the newborn’s playground (Winberg, 2005).
- Kangaroo Care’s continual use throughout the mother’s day can be accomplished using a tube top, slings, or wraps to position the infant near the breast while maintaining maternal modesty as the mother conducts routine postpartal activities.
(Excerpts from below article)
A Comprehensive Evidence-Based Review of Skin-to-Skin (Kangaroo) Care with Full term Infants
Susan M. Ludington-Hoe, R.N., CNM, Ph.D., FAAN
Barbara Morrison, R.N., CNM, FNP, Ph.D.
View the videos on our website — “Instructional video for Second Skin Swaddle”
“Kangaroo Mother Care for Your Newborn”
- Mother or provider of SSC is in reclining position, not flat
- Baby’s back is covered and hair is dry
- Baby is well flexed on provider’s chest
- Baby should be kept upright between breasts with head turned and flat against chest. Mom and baby are to be chest to chest with both shoulders of baby on Mom’s chest, not on breast
- Faces should always be kissable and visible with mouth and nose uncovered
- Baby’s neck should be straight with his/her body, never extended, flexed or bent
*Ludington-Hoe SM, Morgan K. Infant Assessment and Reduction of Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse Risk During Skin-to-Skin Contact. Newborn & Infant Nursing Reviews (2014-Feb)
- When breastfeeding your baby, make sure his head is in a sniffing position and he is on the upper side of your breast
- Baby’s face should never be pressed against breast tissue or turned in against your body, or into the fabric of the Swaddle
If no one can watch you and your baby after feedings and when sleep is likely, put your baby on his or her back on the baby’s own firm bed.
- We had asked the question to Jill Bergman of Kangaroo Mother Care, “What happens to the baby during the separation period after receiving so much KC care?” This was her response. (PDF)
- Kangaroo Mother Care restores to mothers their true ownership of their newbornsPDF
- www.dona.org – Information on finding and the importance of using a doula
- Northeast Georgia Medical Center
- Dr. Maria Blois, author of Babywearing
- Breastfeeding and Smoking: Short Term Affects on Infant Feeding and Sleep
- Kangaroo Care: Why Does it Work?
- After Birth Kangaroo Care: What it is and why we do it (YouTube Video)
- Instructional Video for Skin-to-Skin holding for parents of Premature Infants
- Improves Brain Functioning
- Bigelow, A., & Power, M. (2012). Infant Behavior and Development 35(2), 240-251“Infants held skin-to-skin six hours a day the first week after birth and two hours a day the second through fourth weeks appear to be socially bidding to Mom at the age of three months in contrast to the age of seven months as recorded in previous studies.” (Still Face Studies, Bigelow, 2007).
- Ludington-Hoe, S.M., Johnson, M.W., Morgan, K., Lewis, T., Gutman, J.., Wilson, D., & Scher, M.S. (2011). All SSC changes were same as seen in better sleep organization and suggest brain maturation is occurring during SSC. SSC sleep is better than incubator sleep.
Decreased # of infections
- Kitajima, (2003) If there have been no problems of delivery of a newborn baby, it is of great importance that the mother immediately hold the newborn to establish the mother’s original bacterial flora onto the child.
- Sosa R, Kennell JH, Klaus M. & Urrutia JJ. (1976). KCers BF longer, & fewer infections in KC.
Help the Infant to Latch on, feed better
- Meyer & Anderson, (1999). Both infants were exclusively Breastfeeding at discharge and one week later.
- Ohio Department of Health. (2008). Hold me, Mom. Columbus, Oh: Ohio Dept. of Health Printing, Warehouse # 3977.23 Authors concluded that KC has profound effect on early Breastfeeding
Decreased crying episodes and duration
- (Christensson et al., 1992). Infants in kangaroo care cry 10 times less and for shorter periods than infants in cribs.
- Michelsson et al., (1996). Cot babies cried 10 times more than KC babies and the cry duration was 0.8-0.9 seconds with a contour that is a discomfort cry, elicited mainly by separation from the mother
KC improves cardiorespiratory stability
- Ludington-Hoe, S.M., Anderson, G.C., Swinth, J.Y., Thompson, C., & Hadeed, A.J. (2004) More regular breathing in KC during KC period than in control group. 1.0C) in KC and then dropped .05C in post KC
- Bouloumie E. (2008). Better cardiorespiratory stability in KC than when not in KC
Help with thermoregulation
- (Bystrova et al. 2003). Most of the change occurred during the first 30 minutes, except foot temp rise was delayed by 60minutes in the swaddled infants held in mother’s arms. Foot temp dropped sig in nursery grp C and drop was greatest in swaddled group C babies. Foot temp rose most in KC group and remained high in KC group. KC after birth may be a natural way of reversing stress-related effects on circulation induced during labor because KC babies were more relaxed.
Infant Assessment and Reduction of Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse
- Ludington-Hoe SM, Morgan K (2014) Adequate education of health personnel and families in relation to accurate newborn physiologic assessment and safe positioning, along with appropriate surveillance during the first days of newborn life, especially in high-risk families, can save hundreds of lives.
- Increase the rates of successful breastfeeding
- Bergman, N. (2006) Kangaroo mother care and skin-to-skin contact as determinants of breastfeeding success.
- Anderson GC, Burkhammer M, Morrison B, Ludington-Hoe SM, & Chiu S-H. (2003) Skin-to-skin contact improves breastfeeding outcomes.
Reduce maternal stress and the incidence of postpartum depression
- Ann Bigelow, 41, 369-382;( 2012). SSC benefits mothers by reducing their depressive symptoms and physiological stress in the postpartum period.
- Feldman, E,S, et al(2002) KC produced better levels of maternal infant interaction, more touch, better adaptation to infant cues and better perception of the infant, and less maternal depression
Promotes parent–infant bonding by allowing closer and more intimate contact
- Affonso et al.(1993) Post—discharge comparison study of KC vs no KC. KC helped mothers increase confidence, get to know their baby, makes mom feel that baby needs them, parental mood improved and perceived their infant differently than controls.
- Legault/Goulet, (1995) Moms preferred KC to traditional holding because infant was closer to them, more maternal feelings of well-being, and parental fulfillment.
- Tessier et al. (1998) KC gives moms greater sense of competence, greater sensitivity
Expulsion of Placenta and risks of not using Kangaroo Care
- Riordan, J., & Wambach, K. (2010) Early ( in the first hour after birth) and frequent breastfeedings are encouraged for optimal functioning of both the infant and the mother because it colonizes the infant with protective bacteria, the infant’s sucking causes uterine contractions, helps in expulsion of placenta and helps control maternal blood loss, mothers will BF for longer duration, etc.” and “Breastfeeding and skin to skin contact colonizes harmless bacteria to protect the infant from pathogenic bacteria including MRSA.
- Still Face Studies PDF | DOC
- Financial Impact of Kangaroo CarePDF | DOC
- Kangaroo Care study on readmission rate of NICU infants by Sue Derrick, Nurse Manager of Palmetto Hospital PDF | DOC
- Kangaroo Mother Care: A Practical Guide by the Department of Reproductive Health and Research; World Health Organization PDF
- CDC National Survey of Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care (mPINC) PDF
- See a video of how the baby will breastfeed on their own when using Skin-to-Skin care immediately after birth!
- Kangaroo Care Specialist PDF
- Clinical Guideline For Implementation of Kangaroo Care PDF
- Instructional Video for Skin-to-Skin holding for Healthcare Providers with Infants in the NICU
- Kangaroo care – Video – March of Dimes