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Skin to Skin is the Best Place for Babies to Transition to life 

*Benefits for Mom: Skin to Skin Contact

  • Increased rate of successful breastfeeding
  • Reduce maternal stress and  postpartum depression
  • Promotes parent-infant bonding
  • Increased milk production
  • Decreased pain and faster expulsion of placenta
  • Increased confidence in infants care
*Benefits for Infant: Skin to Skin Contact

  • Improves brain functioning
  • Decreased  number of infections
  • Latch on and feed better
  • Are happier, calmer, less stressed
  • Infants rarely cry
  • Improves heart rate, respiratory and gastrointestinal function
  • Help to regulate temperature and blood sugar

How to receive the benefits of Skin to Skin Contact

  •  Have the mother provide continuous KC until discharge. Mother and infant should remain in KC as much as possible throughout the postpartum stay for improved interactions, development, and breastfeeding  (Kent et al., 2012;Vasquez & Berg, 2012).
  • Continue KC as much as possible throughout the first three months of life (Chalmers, O’Brien, & Boscoe, 2009)
  • Use KC as a FIRST intervention for breastfeeding problems (Vazquez & Berg, 2012). 
  • Remember, Kangaroo Care is the newborn’s playground (Winberg, 2005).
  • Kangaroo Care’s continual use throughout the mother’s day can be accomplished using a tube top, slings, or wraps to position the infant near the breast while maintaining maternal modesty as the mother conducts routine postpartal activities.

(Excerpts from below article)

A Comprehensive Evidence-Based Review of Skin-to-Skin (Kangaroo) Care with Full term Infants
Susan M. Ludington-Hoe, R.N., CNM, Ph.D., FAAN
Barbara Morrison, R.N., CNM, FNP, Ph.D.
View the videos on our website  Instructional video for Second Skin Swaddle
Kangaroo Mother Care for Your Newborn” 
  • Mother or provider of SSC is in reclining position, not flatOriginal PIC Logo276x111
  • Baby’s back is covered and hair is dry
  • Baby is well flexed on provider’s chest
  • Baby should be kept upright between breasts with head turnedamy2 and flat against chest. Mom and baby are to be chest to chest with both  shoulders of baby on  Mom’s chest, not on breast
  • Faces should always be kissable and visible with mouth and nose uncovered
  • Baby’s neck should be straight with his/her body, never extended, flexed or bent
*Ludington-Hoe SM, Morgan K. Infant Assessment and Reduction of Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse Risk During Skin-to-Skin Contact. Newborn & Infant Nursing Reviews (2014-Feb)

Breastfeeding

  • When breastfeeding your baby, make sure his head is in a sniffingjulie2 position and he is on the upper side of your breast
  • Baby’s face should never be pressed against breast tissue or turned in against your body, or into the fabric of the Swaddle

If no one can watch you and your baby after feedings and when sleep is likely, put your baby on his or her back on the baby’s own firm bed.

*View on website: Documented Research,” “Instructional video for Second Skin Swaddle”   “Kangaroo Mother Care for Your Newborn

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  • Improves Brain Functioning
    • Bigelow, A., & Power, M. (2012). Infant Behavior and Development  35(2), 240-251“Infants held skin-to-skin six hours a day the first week after birth and two hours a day the second through fourth weeks appear to be socially bidding to Mom at the age of three months in contrast to the age of seven months as recorded in previous studies.” (Still Face Studies, Bigelow, 2007).
    • Ludington-Hoe, S.M., Johnson, M.W., Morgan, K., Lewis, T., Gutman, J.., Wilson, D., & Scher, M.S. (2011). All SSC changes were same as seen in better sleep organization and suggest brain maturation is occurring during  SSC.  SSC sleep is better  than  incubator  sleep.

    Decreased # of infections

    • Kitajima, (2003) If  there  have been no problems of  delivery of a newborn baby, it is of great importance that the mother immediately hold the newborn to establish the mother’s original bacterial flora onto the child.
    • Sosa R, Kennell JH, Klaus M. & Urrutia JJ. (1976). KCers BF longer, & fewer infections in KC.

    Help the Infant to Latch on, feed better

    • Meyer & Anderson, (1999). Both infants were exclusively Breastfeeding at discharge and one week later.
    •  Ohio Department of Health. (2008).  Hold me, Mom.  Columbus, Oh:  Ohio Dept. of Health Printing,      Warehouse # 3977.23 Authors concluded  that  KC  has  profound  effect  on early Breastfeeding

    Decreased crying episodes and duration

    •  (Christensson et al., 1992). Infants in kangaroo care cry 10 times less and for shorter periods than infants in cribs.
    • Michelsson et al., (1996). Cot babies cried 10 times more than KC babies and the cry duration was 0.8-0.9 seconds with a contour that is a discomfort cry, elicited mainly by separation from the mother

    KC improves cardiorespiratory stability

    • Ludington-Hoe, S.M., Anderson, G.C., Swinth, J.Y., Thompson, C., & Hadeed, A.J. (2004) More regular breathing  in  KC during  KC period than in control group. 1.0C) in KC and then dropped .05C in post KC
    • Bouloumie E. (2008).  Better cardiorespiratory stability  in KC than when not in KC

    Help with thermoregulation

    • (Bystrova et al. 2003). Most of the change occurred during the first 30 minutes, except foot temp rise was delayed by  60minutes in the swaddled infants held in mother’s arms. Foot temp dropped sig in nursery grp C and drop was greatest in swaddled group C babies. Foot temp rose most in KC group and remained high in KC group.  KC after birth may be a natural way of reversing stress-related effects on circulation induced during labor because KC babies were more relaxed.

    Infant Assessment and Reduction of Sudden Unexpected Postnatal Collapse

    • Ludington-Hoe SM, Morgan K (2014) Adequate education of health personnel and families in relation to accurate newborn physiologic assessment and safe positioning, along with appropriate surveillance during the first days of newborn life, especially in high-risk families, can save hundreds of lives.
  • Increase the rates of successful  breastfeeding
  • Bergman, N. (2006) Kangaroo mother care and skin-to-skin contact as determinants  of  breastfeeding  success.
  • Anderson GC, Burkhammer M, Morrison B, Ludington-Hoe SM, & Chiu S-H. (2003) Skin-to-skin contact improves breastfeeding outcomes.

Reduce maternal stress and the incidence of postpartum depression

  • Ann Bigelow, 41, 369-382;( 2012). SSC benefits mothers by reducing their depressive symptoms and physiological stress in the postpartum period.
  • Feldman, E,S, et al(2002) KC produced better levels of maternal infant interaction, more touch, better adaptation to infant cues and better perception of the infant, and less maternal depression

Promotes parent–infant bonding by allowing closer and more intimate contact

  • Affonso et al.(1993) Post—discharge comparison study of KC vs  no KC. KC helped mothers  increase confidence, get to know their baby, makes mom feel that baby needs  them, parental mood improved and perceived their infant differently than controls.
  • Legault/Goulet, (1995) Moms preferred KC to traditional holding because infant was closer to them, more maternal feelings of well-being, and parental fulfillment.
  • Tessier et al. (1998) KC gives moms greater sense of competence, greater sensitivity

Expulsion of Placenta and risks of not using Kangaroo Care

  • Riordan, J., & Wambach, K. (2010) Early ( in the first hour after birth) and frequent breastfeedings are encouraged  for optimal functioning of both the infant and the mother because it colonizes the infant with protective bacteria, the  infant’s sucking causes uterine contractions, helps in expulsion of placenta and  helps control maternal blood loss, mothers will BF for longer duration, etc.”  and “Breastfeeding and skin to skin contact  colonizes harmless bacteria to protect the infant from pathogenic bacteria including MRSA.

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